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Featured California to go all zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) by 2035

Discussion in 'Prius, Hybrid, EV and Alt-Fuel News' started by Gokhan, Aug 24, 2022.

  1. Gokhan

    Gokhan Senior Member

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    All new cars to be sold in California will be required to be a zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) by the 2035 model year. ZEV typically means plug-in all-electric EVs and non-plug-in hydrogen fuel cell EVs; therefore, this regulation will prohibit all new plug-in and non-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and nonhybrid vehicles with an internal combustion engine by 2035. The regulation does not affect used vehicles. Here is the timeline:

    model year—percentage requirement

    2026—35%
    2027—43%
    2028—51%
    2029—59%
    2030—68%
    2031—76%
    2032—82%
    2033—88%
    2034—94%
    2035 & subsequent—100%

    Here is the full regulation:

    Final regulation order for Section 1962.4 zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) standards for 2026 and subsequent model-year passenger cars and light-duty trucks
     
    #1 Gokhan, Aug 24, 2022
    Last edited: Aug 25, 2022
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  2. Salamander_King

    Salamander_King Senior Member

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  3. jdenenberg

    jdenenberg EE Professor

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    So in 2045 will there still be gas stations to fill the tanks of 10 year old cars?
     
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  4. Trollbait

    Trollbait It's a D&D thing

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    #4 Trollbait, Aug 25, 2022
    Last edited: Aug 25, 2022
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  5. hill

    hill High Fiber Member

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    Some cars / vans run on LP or CNG. That oughta be fun - seeing how the legislation works in that regard. Same w/ cars entering Cali after being bought elsewhere. CARB states aren't necessarily where cars are manufactured.
     
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  6. Gokhan

    Gokhan Senior Member

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    Anything with an internal-combustion engine is not considered a zero-emission vehicle (ZEV), even including hydrogen-burning internal-combustion engines currently marketed by Toyota, let alone CNG- and LPG-burning internal-combustion engines. Even hydrogen-burning internal-combustion engines produce NOx through oxidation of air as well very small amounts of HC and CO due to burning of engine oil.
     
  7. Salamander_King

    Salamander_King Senior Member

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    I have not read the linked "full regulation". But isn't it just the sales of the new car that are being regulated? So, you can't sell the ICE car in CA and thus can't buy in CA, but unless it goes nationwide adaptation, which I really doubt will happen anytime soon, I am assuming you can still drive the ICE cars in CA after 2035?

    And the roadmap of 2026—35% means 35% of the new car sales have to be ZEV, correct? Not the 35% of all cars on the road in CA to be ZEVs? I wonder what % of ZEV are sold in CA right now?
     
  8. farmecologist

    farmecologist Senior Member

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    Yikes...owning a vehicle in CA is going to become a whole lot more expensive. Hopefully truly affordable EVs will be a thing by then.

    Edit : I'm also assuming this means sales of *new* vehicles. If not...ouch.
     
  9. Gokhan

    Gokhan Senior Member

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    Yes, it only applies to sale of new cars in California. I wonder if you bought a new ICE car out of state, they would let you register in California.

    Yes, 35% means at least 35% of new cars brought for sale in California by an OEM must be ZEV. I wonder if they would be allowed to ship unsold EVs out of state. LOL
     
  10. farmecologist

    farmecologist Senior Member

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    This new law is going to have some strange consequences to both the new and used car markets. o_O
     
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  11. Gokhan

    Gokhan Senior Member

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    Wait—I was wrong!

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) will still be allowed after 2035, albeit subject to range minimums, manufacturing quotas (no more than 20% of all ZEVs), and some other conditions.

    So, the Prius Prime will never die!


    (1)PHEV Flexibility. Manufacturers may fulfill a portion of their total AnnualZEV Requirement with PHEVs produced and delivered for sale inCalifornia as follows:
    (A)For each 2026 model year and subsequent PHEV that meets allthe following criteria, manufacturers may count such vehicles at avalue of one towards the Annual ZEV Requirement:
    1.SULEV30 Standards. Certified to full useful life SULEV30 orlower exhaust emission standards for passenger cars andlight-duty trucks in CCR, title 13, section 1961.4.
    2.Extended Defects and Performance Warranty. Extend theperformance and defects warranty period set forth in CCR,title 13, sections 2037(b)(2) and 2038(b)(2) to 15 years or150,000 miles, whichever occurs first.
    3.Battery Labeling Requirements. Meet requirements setforth in CCR, title 13, section 1962.6.
    4.Data Standardization. Meet applicable requirements setforth in CCR, title 13, section 1962.5.
    12
    Date of Release: August 22, 2022
    Date of Hearing: August 25, 2022
    5. Service Information Requirements. Meet requirements set
    forth in CCR, title 13, section 1969.
    6. Battery Warranty. Meet applicable battery warranty
    requirements set forth in CCR, title 13, section 1962.8.
    7. Charging Requirements. Meet requirements set forth in
    CCR, title 13, section 1962.3.
    8. Minimum Certification Range Value. Minimum certification
    range value of greater than or equal to 70 miles, per the
    2026 ZEV and PHEV Test Procedures.
    9. Minimum US06 All-Electric Range Value. Minimum US06 allelectric
    range value greater than or equal to 40 miles, per
    the 2026 ZEV and PHEV Test Procedures.
    (B) For each 2026 through 2028 model year PHEV that meets the
    criteria identified in section (e)(1)(A)1., through (e)(1)(A)6., with a
    minimum certification range value of less than 70 miles and
    greater than or equal to 43 miles, per the 2026 ZEV and PHEV
    Test Procedures, manufacturers may count such vehicles at a
    partial vehicle value comprised of the sum of the Partial Vehicle
    Value equation plus additional credit for US06 all-electric range,
    calculated as follows:
    1. Partial Vehicle Value Equation:

    Partial Vehicle Value = ( (Certification-Range Value) / 100 ) + 0.20

    Where:
    Partial Vehicle Value = vehicle value per qualifying PHEV in units
    of vehicles, rounded to two significant digits and capped at a
    maximum of 0.85
    Certification Range Value = As defined in subsection (l), in units
    of miles, rounded to the whole mile
    13
    Date of Release: August 22, 2022
    Date of Hearing: August 25, 2022
    2.Additional credit for US06 all-electric range. An additional0.15 partial vehicle value, if the PHEV has a US06 all-electricrange of at least 10 miles determined in accordance withthe 2026 ZEV and PHEV Test Procedures.
    3.The maximum total partial vehicle value earned by a PHEVunder the Partial Vehicle Value Equation plus additionalcredit, per subsection (e)(1)(B)2., may not exceed 1.00.
    (C)PHEV Allowance. The annual PHEV allowance that a manufacturermay apply in a given model year towards its ZEV requirementperformance under subsection (f) shall be calculated bymultiplying 20 percent times the applicable model year AnnualZEV Requirement calculated in subsection (c)(1)(A).
     
    #11 Gokhan, Aug 25, 2022
    Last edited: Aug 25, 2022
  12. John321

    John321 Senior Member

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    I got dizzy just reading the regulation for PHEV's!
     
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  13. Trollbait

    Trollbait It's a D&D thing

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    It's over 16%.
    https://bsinpolitics.com/as-statewide-zev-sales-exceed-16-percent-of-all-new-vehicles-california-zev-program-surpasses-250000-point-of-sale-incentives/

    A PHEV needs a Minimum Certification Range Value of 70 miles, and a Minimum US06 All-Electric Range Value of 40 miles. What is the difference between those two values?

    ZEVs need a minimum certification range of 200 miles.
     
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  14. Gokhan

    Gokhan Senior Member

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    Here are the main points:

    1. PHEVs need to have at least 70 miles of EV range and at least 40 miles of US06-cycle range. The US06 cycle includes several bursts of moderate acceleration and a momentary top speed of 80 mph.

    2. If a PHEV doesn't have the above-stated EV range but has a minimum 43 miles of EV range, it qualifies for a partial credit, which may count as a fractional EV, according to the formula given above. The minimum partial credit possible is 0.63, but in practice they should all get the additional 0.15 for a minimum 10-mile US06-cycle range, and the minimum partial credit will probably end up to be 0.78.

    3. The maximum number of PHEVs produced for sale in California cannot exceed 20% of the ZEV requirement of that model year's for the OEM.

    It appears that after 2035, partial credits will not be allowed, and the whole 20% PHEV allocation would have to have at least the minimum ranges stated in point 1 above.
     
    #14 Gokhan, Aug 25, 2022
    Last edited: Aug 25, 2022
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  15. farmecologist

    farmecologist Senior Member

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    Nice! I'm hoping this means the Prime will get a bigger battery.
     
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  16. Salamander_King

    Salamander_King Senior Member

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    Washington State maybe next.
     
  17. Gokhan

    Gokhan Senior Member

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    Here are the full details of the EPA US06 test cycle.

    EPA US06 or supplemental federal test procedures (SFTP) | US EPA

    [​IMG]
     
  18. Trollbait

    Trollbait It's a D&D thing

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  19. Isaac Zachary

    Isaac Zachary Senior Member

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    I wonder what this means for the rest of the country. I like EV's. If I drive the Avalon until it has 250,000 miles on it it will take me about 10 more years. That will be 2032. I wonder how the used EV market will be by then. About 50% of used cars from Californa that are 3 to 5 years old will be EV's at that time.
     
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  20. Gokhan

    Gokhan Senior Member

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    Here are the EPA "certification range" cycles—UDDS (urban) and HFEDS/HWFET (highway):

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    certification-range value = 0.55 × urban all-electric + 0.45 × highway all-electric

    Here are the 2026+ California regulations and test procedures:

    Final regulation order for Section 1962.4 zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) standards for 2026 and subsequent model-year passenger cars and light-duty trucks

    California test procedures for 2026 and subsequent model-year zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the passenger car, light-duty truck, and medium-duty vehicle classes
     
    #20 Gokhan, Aug 25, 2022
    Last edited: Aug 25, 2022